Prior to Noah's flood around 9600 BC there were evidently 290 days in an Earth year. After Noah's flood it appears there were 360 days in an Earth year till 701 BC. After 701 BC there were 365 and 1/4 days in an Earth year. It also seems Mars used to pass very close to the Earth every few years during this time. Around 1400 BC the Earth experienced the long day of Joshua. Around 701 BC the shadow of the sundial turned backward 10 "mallah" or 100 degrees, the Earth's year lengthened to 365.25 days, and Mars moved quite a bit further away from the Sun. In order for the Earth and Mars to have an increase in the number of days in their years they would have had to move further away from the Sun. In order for the Earth system and Mars to move further away from the Sun they would have to of gained a specific amount of angular momentum while another massive enough planet that passed within the Earth's sphere of influence lost that same amount of angular momentum. I say this because of the law of the conservation of angular momentum. This law basically says that if no outside force acts on it the angular momentum of a system will remain constant. Now what planet gave some of its angular momentum to the Earth system and Mars not once, but twice? Some people think an unidentified planet X gave some of its angular momentum to the Earth and Mars. Using math I'll show you why I think Venus gave some of it's angular momentum to the Earth and Mars. But first I'll show you why I think most peoples ideas about planet X are incorrect.

By the way Copyright 2004 by Wayne Mckellips. Last updated 29 August 2004. Please copy and share but do not sell. You do not have permission to mirror this article or site on the internet.

I used to think, and most people still think, Planet X has a very elliptical orbit around the Sun. They think the orbital period of planet X extends far beyond Pluto, where it moves fairly slow. Then planet X comes in close and speeds up, orbiting quickly around the Sun, around the distance the inner planets are from the Sun. This in agreement with Kepler's law that a planet will travel through equal areas of space during equal periods of time. The area of space the planet travels through is measured from the planet's start point, to the point the planet is orbiting, to the point the planet is at, after a specific length of time.

As planet X passed close to the Earth-Moon, Mars system, the Earth-moon, Mars system picked up energy from planet X which caused it as a unit to move further away from the Sun. This increased the number of days in their years. Since planet X yielded up some of its energy to the Earth-Moon, Mars system, the orbital period of planet X was decreased.

Let's get some data and equations and see what probably caused the Earth and Mars to gain in angular momentum.

Some data and equations:

Mass of Sun = 1.989 e 30 kg. Mass of Earth = 5.972 e 24 kg. Radius of the Earth or the distance of the Earth from the center of the Sun = 128,280,263,119 meters when there were 290 days in an Earth year. Radius of the Earth at 360 days = 148,170,874,459 meters. Radius of the Earth at 365 and 1/4 days = 150,295,000,000 meters. Mass moon = 7.35 e 22 kg. Radius of Moon = 384,400 km. Orbital period of moon = 709 hours. Mass Mars = 6.4219 e 23 kg. Mass Mercury = 3.3 e 23 kg. Mercury average radius = 57,910,000,000 meters. Period = 7,599,814 seconds. Average velocity = 47,877 m/s. Mass Venus = 4.869 e 24 kg. Radius = 108,200,000,000 meters. Average velocity = 35,026 m/s. Period = 19,409,463 seconds. Angular Momentum (L) = (MVR) or mass times velocity times radius.

Universal gravity constant = 6.67390 exponent -11. Earth's distance from center of the Sun = 150,295,000,000 meters. The center of the moon to the center of the Earth = an average of 384,400,000 meters.

Orbital period squared ={[(pi squared) times four] times (distance cubed)} divided by [(mass body one plus the mass of body two) times the universal gravitational constant]. You can rearrange this formula to compute radius or mass.Distance cubed ={[(mass body one plus the mass of body two) times the universal gravitational constant] times (orbital period squared)} divided by [(pi squared) times four].Mass body one plus mass body two =[(distance cubed) times (pi squared) times 4] divided by [universal gravitational constant times (orbital period squared)]. For this formula orbital period is in seconds. Mass is in kilograms. Distance is the meters from the center of one body to the center of the second body.

Circumference = radius times 2 times pi. Area of a circle = radius squared times pi. You can multiply kilometers times .6214 to convert to miles.

How much angular momentum did the Earth and Mars gain?

Now for some of the math. For these computations,angular momentumequals mass in kg, times radius in meters, times velocity in meters/sec.I am not including the angular momentum caused by the spin of the moon or the planets. I am also usually not including the angular momentum resulting from the moon orbiting the Earth.When the Earth had 290 days per year the angular momentum of the Earth-moon, Mars system was approximately 2.7596883 e 40 kg m sq'd/s. The angular momentum of Mars when the Earth had 360 days in a year was approximately 2.8480500 e +39 kg m sq'd/s. The angular momentum of the Earth-moon system back then was approximately 2.68112027 e 40 kg m sq'd/s. When the Earth had 360 days per year the total angular momentum of the above system was approximately 2.9659252 e 40 kg m sq'd/s.The angular momentum increase for the Earth-moon, Mars system from 290 days per year to 360 days per year was approximately 2.062369 e+39 kg m sq'd/s.

The angular momentum of the Earth-moon system at 365 and 1/4 days is approximately 2.7189198 e 40 kg m sq'd/s. The angular momentum of Mars with 686.98 earth days, at 2.27,94 e 11 meters radius from the sun, traveling at 24,129 m/s is approximately 3.5320220 e 39 kg m sq'd/s. This gives the three bodies a total present angular momentum of 3.0721220 e +40 kg m sq'd/s. The angular momentum of the Earth moon system is now approximately 2.71891984 e 40 kg m sq'd/s. The angular momentum of Mars now is approximately 3.5320220 e 39 kg m sq'd/s.The increase in angular momentum from 360 days to 365.25 days per Earth year for all three objects combined was 1.061968 e +39 kg m sq'd/s.

Evidence that Planet X is not a huge planet beyond Pluto.

Question. Using the above information, can we determine the minimum mass of planet X? Yes, I think we can. Let's try. If planet X made a pass in 9600 BC then another pass in 701 BC that means it had an orbital period of 8,899 years which consisted of 360 Earth days. That's 276,794,496,000 seconds.Distance cubed ={[(mass body one plus the mass of body two) times the universal gravitational constant] times (orbital period squared)} divided by [pi squared) times four]. Since body one, the sun, is so massive, we will just use its mass, and ignore planet X's mass. Mass of the sun = 1.989 e 30 kg. Universal gravitational constant = 6.67390 e -11. Plugging in the numbers we find the average distance of planet X from the Earth during this time period was 63,629,212,335,837 meters. Next we'll take radius times two times pi to find the circumference. Then we will divide the circumference by the total number of seconds in 8,899, 360 day years to determine planet X's average velocity. Dividing by 276,794,496,000 seconds, we find the average velocity of planet X was 1,444.37 m/s, prior to its 701 BC pass.

Remember, the Earth-moon, Mars, together gained 2.062369 e+39 kg m sq'd/s in angular momentum when planet X caused the Earth to increase from 290 days per year to 360 days per year.

In 701 BC recall that planet X lost 1.061968 e +39 kg m sq'd/s. Just for fun let's assume planet X will return in 2012 AD. That would reduce planet X's orbital period to 2713, 365.25 day Earth years or 85,615,768,800 seconds. If planet X returns in 2012 AD its average distance from the sun would be 29,101,860,485,372 meters. Its average velocity would be 956.447 m/s.

Let's try to compute planet X's loss in angular momentum using the above information, and 1.66 e 22 kg as planet X's mass. For calculations prior to 701 BC let's multiply 1.66 e 22 kg times 6.36 e 13 meters times 1,444 m/s. For calculations after 701 BC let's use the same mass but 2.91 e 13 meters and 956 m/s. Using 1.66 e 22 kg for the mass of planet X we get its angular momentum as 1.5245 e 39 kg m sq'd/s prior to 701 BC. We get its angular momentum prior to a possible 2012 pass as 4.6180 e 38 kg/m sq'd/s. The difference between the two, orPlanet X's loss of angular momentum would have been the Earth-moon, Mars, 701 BC gain in angular momentum of 1.06 e 39 kg m sq'd/s, if planet X's mass was 1.66 e 22 kg.

If the orbital period of planet X is now say 8,500, 365.25 Earth day years, or 268,239,600,000 seconds, instead of 2713 years, its average distance from the Sun is 62,311,304,348,622 meters. Its average orbital velocity would be 1,459.56 m/s. Prior to 701 BC let us figure the average distance of planet X from the sun was 63,629,212,335,837 meters. Planet X took 8,899, 360 Earth day years or 276,794,496,000 seconds to complete one orbit with an average velocity of 1,444.37 m/s. If the mass of planet X was 1.0 e 25 kg, its angular momentum prior to 701 BC would have been 9.190 e 41 kg m sq'd/s. Its angular momentum after 701 BC would have been 9.094 e 41 kg m sq'd/s after 701 BC. Its loss in angular momentum would have been 9.57e 39 kg m sq'd/s. If planet X's orbital period between Noah's flood and 701 BC was 8,899 years this tells us two things about planet X. First, its orbital period is now still greater than 8,500 years, and second it is clearly much smaller than Jupiter. At 1.66 e 22 kg its mass would be less than that of the moon's 7.35 e 22 kg.

Evidence that Planet X is not Mercury.

After I completed the above exercise I realized I was at a loss as to where planet X might be. Whenever I get totally stumped or loss on this type of problem I pray. I simply asked God for his help in solving this problem. Within two or three days, the answer came to me. I didn't have any visions or dreams. Like several times before, the answer just came to me. No matter how the answer came to be in my head, I thank God for the answer. The Bible says every good and perfect gift comes from above, from the Father. It came to me that planet X lost angular momentum and became one of the inner planet's. I was eager to plug in the numbers and see which planet it might be. I found out the following about Mercury and Venus. Note, usually I am not including the angular momentum (L) resulting from the spin of the astronomical body or that caused by the orbit of a moon around its planet.

Mercury: Mass is 3.3 e 23 kg. Radius is 5.791 e 10 m. Velocity is 47,877 m/s. Angular momentum is 9.149 e 38 kg m sq'rd/s. The radius of Mars is 2.2794 e 11 m. At a radius of 2.0 e 11 meters, Mercury's L would be 1.700 e 39 kg m sq'd/s. The difference in Mercury's L would be 7.854 e 38 kg m sq'd/s. This is far less than the L planet X loss. Clearly Mercury was not planet X.

Evidence that Planet X is Venus.

Venus: Mass is 4.869 e 24 kg. Radius is 1.082 e 11 m. Velocity is 35.026 m/s. Angular momentum is 1.845 e 40 kg m sq'rd/s. At a radius of 2.0 e 11 meters, Venus' L would be 2.508 e 40 kg m sq'd/s. The difference in Venus' L would be 6.63 e 39 kg m sq'd/s. The total L lost by planet X was only 3.72 e 39 kg m sq'd/s. Clearly, it appears Venus may have been planet X.

Venus would have had an angular momentum of 2.2156 e 40 kg m sq'd/s when it was 1.56 e 11 meters from the Sun. That's 3.71 e 39 kg m sq'd/s more angular momentum then Venus has now. All total the Earth, the moon, and Mars gained around 3.72 e 39 kg m sq'd/s.

However, I believe the past orbit of Venus was much more elliptical than it is today. I think Venus interacted with Mars and the Earth three times. The first time Venus interacted with the Earth Mars system the Earth Mars system gained angular momentum and Venus lost angular momentum. The second time Venus interacted with the Earth Mars system The Earth's axis precessed forward and to the left 180 degrees in around 12 hours causing the long day of Joshua. However, there was no exchange of angular momentum. Why? I believe it was either the angle at which Venus swung by the Earth or Venus was outside the Earth's "sphere of influence". The third time Venus first swung by Mars at an angle which gave Mars some of Venus' angular momentum. I think Venus then within minutes swung by the Earth moon system at an angle which resulted in the Earth moon system gaining angular momentum (L) and Venus losing angular momentum (L). I think Venus at this time also caused the Earth's axis to precess forward and to the left 180 degrees in around 5 and 1/2 hours. This pass in 701 BC resulted in Mars, the Earth, and Venus coming to their present orbits.

If you view this on paper you might picture the 1400 BC long day of Joshua taking place when the Sun was in the center of your paper and the Earth was at the top of your paper. The Earth's axis precessed from a right tilt forward and probably 180 to the left in around 10 or 12 hours. Then aound 700 years later picture the Earth at the bottom of your paper. Viewed from the Sun, in the center of the paper, the Earth would appear to be tilted to the right. This time I believe Venus passed closer to the Earth and caused the Earth's axis to precess from a right tilt 180 degrees forward and to the left in 5 and 1/2 hours or so. This caused the Sun to appear to move backward in the Sky around 6.67 hours or 100 degrees.

Just so you'll know. The long or short side of the planet's very lopsided or elliptical orbit itself orbits or moves around the Sun.

I use to think God caused Joshua's long day and the Sun dial to turn backward by simply turning the Earth upside down. However, I was assured that was incorrect from a physics point of view.

Still, I do think the tilt of some planets like Venus and Uranus have been changed, probably by some astronomical encounter.

In Sept of 2004 I finally read some of Immanuel Velikovsky's works. I found out he was ahead of me in many ways. In "Worlds in Collision" Immanuel Velikovsky detailed some of the astronomical catastrophics that affected the Earth using written records and oral traditions. In "Earth In Upheaval" he used the record in the rocks to verify much of his first book. Although he may not have been correct in every detail, Immanuel Velikovsky was clearly ahead of his time. If I understand correctly, Velikovsky believed the long day of Joshua and the turning back of the Sundial was caused by the Earth's axis precessing 90 or 180 degrees in less than a day. He believed in addition to the force of gravity, there was another as yet not understood force that caused this to happen. Applying the math we know about gyroscopes I have been unable to figure out how Venus was able to generate enough torque to cause the Earth to precess 180 degrees in around 12 hours. So perhaps Velikovsky was correct. If I can successfully solve this math problem, dealing with the rapid precession of the Earth's axis, I certainly plan to publish the results. Update - I think I figured it out. Force = Mass times acceleration. As the Earth's spin axis accelerated in its precession, that acceleration times the mass involved added to the necessary force to increase the precession of the Earth!

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